Human Security Special Lecture B
Monday, February 7th, 2017
17.00 – 19.00
1st Conference Room, 1F of Building #6, GS of Medicine, Seiryo Campus
Lecturer Title :
People-Centered Housing Recovery: Social Equity in Disaster Reconstruction.
Lecturer : Assistant Prof. Liz Maly(Div. International Disaster Resilience, IRIDeS, Tohoku University).
The seventh Human Security Special Lecture B has been held on Tuesday, February 7
th 2017. The lecture titled “People-Centered Housing Recovery: Social Equity
in Disaster Reconstruction” was brought by Assistant Prof. Liz Maly, from
Division of International Disaster ResilienceI , International Research
Institute for Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University. The lecture
was attended by students from both Human Security Program and
Graduate School of Medicine.
Prof Liz Maly’s lecture was divided in 3 main issues which were such as
housing recovery after disaster,the idea of people centered housing recovery
and her experience on several international examples of postdisaster housing
recovery. Prof. Liz Maly explained first about the definition of house
and housing and why either house or housing correlated with human security
especially during disaster reconstruction. A house’s definition can be
described in many meanings and depended on those purposes. On the other
definition was totally different with housing definition. Housing is a
physical structure, but is closely connected to livelihood and other aspects
of people lives. So the real meaning of house on disaster reconstruction
is not only talking about a place for sleep and daily life but also developing
emotional function, social function, spirituals function and so on. If
house and housing is not controlled with an appropriate policy, these factors
can also be considered a threat to human security.
People-Centered Housing is one of ways to overcome the threats and achieve
“Life with dignity” in housing problem after disaster. Prof Liz Maly mentioned
seven aspect to improving housing recovery after disaster. But before having
it, we have to be sure about people or survivor was involved in housing
decision to develop better lives after disaster. Investigating their opinion
about size/shape of the house for the household and lifestyle, house structure,
affordable to buy or rent or repair a house, house’s location, daily live
and social cultural function should be considered by government, donor,
private company or another contractor. It is really important to conduct
a priority person list that gets a house by risk assessment due to a different
situation and different criteria which will affect to the process of housing
recovery. The process of housing recovery should support smooth transitions
and re-establishing stable housing quickly.
The people centered idea was already alive in the 1970s by John Turner
and concerned issues in the United Nation Conference on Human Settlement,
and International Development. People centered housing recovery mean as
house built match residents’ needs for their live, people are involved
(participation) and their voices are included in the decision making process.
The other idea in people centered housing recovery is equitable reconstruction
means disasters-affected peoples’ need are addressed (equity was being
considered in an aspect on housing recovery). Meanwhile equity in housing
recovery is closely related with vulnerability because disaster does not
affect people equally and affect vulnerable people severely. Examples in
housing damage and recovery in consist of low income people are more likely
to live in poor quality housing and in hazardous area and low income people,
renters, elderly and sick people will have harder time and face extra challenges
in recovery but some people will have more power and have more advantages
to access same resources. However we don’t need support people equally
but need to assess by based on vulnerability or needs and also support
their livelihood and deal with vulnerability.
In the next explanation, human security calls for people centered, comprehensive,
context-specific and prevention-oriented response that strengthen the protection
of individual and their communities. Either of human security and people
centered recovery were focused on prevention or building back in a way
to reduce future disaster impact. Human security aims to insure the survival,
livelihood and dignity of all individual especially the most vulnerable.
Both of human security and people centered ideas talked about vulnerable
and managed vulnerability not only in housing recovery situation but also
in all situations which has related with vulnerable member and vulnerability
condition. So like human security, the principles of people centered housing
recovery can be applied to different context (rich or poor, developed or
developing countries, various kinds of communities, cultures and governments).
Prof Liz Maly explained her experience about how solved housing recovery
problem with people centered approach in housing recovery after disaster
at Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan, Housing recovery after Typhoon Yolanda,
Tacloban, Philippines, and Post Merapi, Rekompak Program, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
The key points for people centered housing recovery after disaster according
to Prof Liz Maly are first, house meet residents’ need for their lives
such as house form (design, materials, and construction), location that
allows for work, school, medical and shopping and then about cost are acceptable
to resident. Second, people’s voice are included (people are involved,
their ideas and desires included in decision making process and people
are the ones who know their own need best). The last one, equitable reconstruction
is important think such kind like all disaster-affected peoples’ needs
are addressed, those who need assistance are not left out and additional
assistance provided for those who need it.
(Reported by Tri Bayu Purnama, Graduate School of Medicine)