Human Security Special Lecture B
Monday, December 5th
14.00 – 18.00
Ecollab 1F, Lecture Room 4, GSES, Aobayama Campus
Lecturer Title :
Food Security in Indonesia: Achievement and Challenge
Dr. Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo
(Head Department of Agricultural Socioeconomics, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University)
On Monday, December 5th 2016, the second Human Security Special Lecture
B has been held at Ecollab, Aobayama Campus. “Food Security in Indonesia:
Achievement and Challenge” was the lecture title, delivered by Dr. Jangkung
Handoyo Mulyo, from Agricultural Socioeconomics, Faculty of Agriculture,
Gadjah Mada University. The lecture was attended by students from both
Human Security Program and Graduate School of Agriculture Science.
Dr Jangkung at the beginning explained Indonesia condition at glance. At
this part, he pointed out the importance of Indonesia’ population number
(255.46 million people), nominal Indonesia’ GDP (US$ 872,615 million),
per capita GDP (US$ 3,416) and number of Indonesia islands (13,000). All
of that point, population is the most important variable, because population
(people) is the subject of developing in every country.
After that, Dr. Jangkung explained why we need agriculture? First, of course, agriculture provides food that is essential for human life. Second, it also provides employment. Third, agriculture supplies of industrial material. Forth, it could create foreign exchange. Fifth, agriculture is potential market dor industrial output. And the last reason is agriculture improve income equity.
Food Security was also mentioned by Dr. Jangkung. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs food preferences for an active and healthy life (from World Food Summit, 1966)
Indonesia has 12 strategic commodities, consist of 7 importing commodities and 5 exporting commodities. The importing commodities are rice, maize/corn, soy bean, meat, red onions, chili and sugar. The exporting commodities are tea, cocoa, coffee, rubber and palm oil. For commodities of rice, Indonesia still imports around 0.4% - 9.2% of the national rice production. Although this is a small percentage, but if you see the amount of tonnage, will be great amount. Dr Jangkung explained about percentage of agriculture labor in Indonesia, reach to 29.99 % of total Indonesian labor force. It shows that agriculture take important role in Indonesia development.
Government of Indonesia has some efforts to develop agriculture sector. Agriculture machinery assistance is one of the programs of government to support agriculture sector. They give assistance for rice combine harvesting machine, hand tractor, rice planting machinery, weeding machinery and other agriculture machine. For 2016 financial year, budget for this program increasing significantly, even if compared to total budget for previous 5 years financial years.
Another program is improvement of Agricultural Irrigation. With up to 7.3 million Ha of agricultural land area in Indonesia, agricultural irrigations with good condition are only 40%. These conditions hamper the effectiveness of agricultural productivity. However, agriculture is dependent on irrigation system. Agriculture Ministry of Indonesia since 2015 allocated big number of budget to improve agricultural irrigation, to support agricultural production. From implementing modern agricultural there are several benefit for agricultural in Indonesia: saving cost of planting up to 30%, speed of weeding 3 times than manually, increasing of rice production 26 million tones, save loss harvesting 6.7 million tones. These benefit equal to Rp. 316 billion per year.
Indonesia has some achievements in the field of agriculture, among others:
national rice production enhanched from 51,898,852 tones (2000) to 75,361,248
tones (2015), the average of self-sufficiency rate of rice is 97.8 %, per
capita rice consumption decrease to 96.30 kg/year, during 2002 to 2015
the value of desirable dietery pattern (DDP) tend to be improve, exporting
organic rice to Belgian, Malaysia, Singapore, USA, Germany and Italy and
number of people under the poverty line reduced from 38,740,000 (18%) in
the year 2000 to 28,592,790 (11.2%) in the year 2015.
On the other hand, Indonesia faces some challenges in agricultural sector. One of them is education level of agricultural labor. Most of labor in agricultural sector are finished or not finished from Primary School. Another challenge is agricultural land conversion into nonagricultural land. Every year, Indonesia creating 47,000 Ha new agricultural land but has 110,000 Ha agricultural land conversion. Other challenge is number of population, increase from 206,264,595 (2000) to become 254,748,562 (2015). On average, the growth rate of the population is 1.42% per year.
To conclude, besides successful of providing food for the people, Government
of Indonesia still faces several challenges. Therefore, it is needed strong
efforts to sustain increasing of food production and to improve desirable
dietary pattern, to maintain low growth rate of population, to reduce agricultural
land conversion, as well as enhance food diversification.
(Reported by Christ Bangun Dwi Samekto, Graduate School of Environmental Studies)